Many classifications have been proposed for the category of freaks, as well as for the general category of monsters. Monstrous offers 5 different points of view but the conclusion remains with you. Note that we have introduced the notion of “transformer” who is the freak of the XXIth century, the true self-made techno-freak.
Before, the classification were limited to developments from Paré and Gould and Pyle works. Paré was a famous French surgeon whose books were significant in the development of surgery, especially his treatise on monsters, Des Monstres et prodiges.
Although he brought few new ideas to this subject, Paré did produce a brilliant synthesis of the teratological thought of his time, drawing on the works of Cardano, Ruff and Boaistau. Like other commentaries on monsters, his work, which considered marine, animal, and human monsters, is dominated by a sense of wonder and joy in the variety of creation.
He organized the causes of monstrosity in four categories: the direct will of God; the agency of devils and demons; human will (including spiteful human artifice); and the imperfection of nature.
His work was intended for a broad audience. Gould and Pyle have limited their work to the double monsters and their method is still of use.